Written by Wozniak, the interpreter enabled users to write software applications without needing to purchase additional development utilities. This was eliminated on the later board revisions. The 16-bit operating system would automatically switch to the text display and downshift to 8-bit mode to run legacy software, while offering a consistent, Macintosh-like graphical interface for native 16-bit applications. The coarse, low-resolution graphics display mode works differently, as it can output a pattern of dots per pixel to offer more color options. In the early days, such networks were scarce. (An Apple IIc with the smaller of these displays appeared briefly in the film 2010.) Third parties did eventually figure out how to wedge up to 1 MB of additional memory and a real-time clock into the machine, and a later revision of the motherboard provided an expansion slot that could accept an Apple memory card bearing up to 1 MB of RAM. Original Apple IIs had jumper switches to adjust the RAM size, and RAM configurations could be 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 32, 36, or 48 KiB. From there, Ctrl+B enters BASIC or a machine language program can be loaded from cassette. Routines in the ROM encode and decode data in frequency-shift keying for the cassette. The Apple II (stylized as Apple ] [ and later as Apple //) was one of the first highly successful mass produced microcomputer series, manufactured by Apple Computer (now Apple Inc.) and introduced in 1977. Apple II accelerator cards doubled or quadrupled the computer's speed. As a side effect, Wozniak's scheme made it easy for proprietary software developers to copy-protect the media on which their software shipped by changing the low-level sector format or stepping the drive's head between the tracks; inevitably, other companies eventually sold software to foil this protection. Color was added later by adding a 3.58-megahertz subcarrier signal that was partially ignored by black-and-white TV sets. Apple II: The Apple II 8-bit microcomputer was first released in June of 1977. "[11], Personal Computer World in August 1978 also cited the color capability as a strength, stating that "the prime reason that anyone buys an Apple II must surely be for the colour graphics". The Apple II (stylized as apple ][) is an 8-bit home computer and one of the world's first highly successful mass-produced microcomputer products. All existing customers who sent in their warranty cards were sent free copies of the Red Book. [23] The magazine published a favorable review of the computer in March 1978, concluding, "For the user that wants color graphics, the Apple II is the only practical choice available in the 'appliance' computer class. This feature was also later found in late-model American Apple IIe computers (though the switch was inside the computer) and in the Apple IIGS (accessible via the built-in control panel). Sales expanded exponentially into the business and professional market when the spreadsheet program VisiCalc was launched in mid-1979. The Apple II display provides two pixels per subcarrier cycle. The Apple II series (trademarked with square brackets as "Apple ][" and rendered on later models as "Apple //") is a family of home computers, one of the first highly successful mass-produced microcomputer products, designed primarily by Steve Wozniak, manufactured by Apple Computer (now Apple Inc.), and launched in 1977 with the original Apple II. The secret of the Apple IIGS's compatibility was a single chip called the Mega II, which contained the functional equivalent of an entire Apple IIe computer (sans processor). The Apple II (stylized as apple ][) is an 8-bit home computer and one of the world's first highly successful mass-produced microcomputer products. The new OS eventually included a Finder that could be used for managing disks and files and opening documents and applications, along with desk accessories — just like the Macintosh. The international models used the same mechanism to switch between the localized and the American keyboard layouts, but did not offer Dvorak. The high-resolution display offers more colors by compressing more (and narrower) pixels into each subcarrier cycle. A single HGR page occupied 8 KiB of RAM; in practice this meant that the user had to have at least 12 KiB of total RAM to use HGR mode and 20 KiB to use two pages. The expensive GUI-based Apple Lisa was introduced in 1983, but was not successful commercially. While it was possible for software to switch out the 80-column firmware, making the firmware of a card in slot 3 available with a card in the auxiliary slot, it was not a common thing to do. With a few small-scale logic chips and a cheap PROM (programmable read-only memory), he created a functional floppy disk interface at a fraction of the component cost of standard circuit configurations. An external 5¼-inch floppy disk drive, the Disk II, attached via a controller card that plugged into one of the computer's expansion slots (usually slot 6), was used for data storage and retrieval to replace cassettes. Taking advantage of the way the 6502 processor accesses memory: occurs only on alternate phases of the clock cycle, the video generation circuitry's memory access on the otherwise unused phase avoids memory contention issues and interruptions of the video stream. Original selling price was $1298 Apple II+: included at least 48k RAM, ran Applesoft BASIC. Apple instead licensed Microsoft's 6502 BASIC to create Applesoft BASIC. For an overview of the series of computers based on it, see, First computer model in the Apple II series, Apple II in common 1977 configuration with 9" monochrome monitor, game paddles, and Red Book recommended, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "Total share: 30 years of personal computer market share figures", "woz.org: Comment From e-mail: Why didn't the early Apple II's use Fans? Throughout the late 1980s and much of the 1990s the Apple II was the standard computer in American education. Models in this Series: Apple II: basic system, came with 4-64k RAM, and ran Integer BASIC. The three smallest memory configurations used 4kx1 DRAMs, with larger ones using 16kx1 DRAMs, or mix of 4-kilobyte and 16-kilobyte banks (the chips in any one bank have to be the same size). This enabled programmers to write and debug machine code programs without further development software. It was among the first home computers on the market, … When the Apple II initially shipped in June 1977, no expansion cards were available for the slots. All Macintosh Models | All 1987 Models | Dynamically Compare This Mac to Others. These pulses can translate into pixels on the computer screen, with the possibility of exploiting composite artifact colors.

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