# electrolysis of water equation

 In a similar way the required voltage can be reduced (below 1 V) if fuels (such as carbon, alcohol, biomass) are reacted with water (PEM based electrolyzer in low temperature) or oxygen ions (solid oxide electrolyte based electrolyzer in high temperature). The electrolyte can be made of an aqueous solution containing ions, a proton exchange membrane (PEM) or an oxygen ion exchange ceramic …  The simpler two-electron reaction to produce hydrogen at the cathode can be electrocatalyzed with almost no overpotential by platinum, or in theory a hydrogenase enzyme. So, the selection of salts with non-competing ions becomes necessary. The hydrogen ion is associated with other water molecule and exists as hydronium ion. The electrolysis also involves the transfer of electrons from the anion to the anode and cathode to cations. So, electrolysis of pure water will be a very slow process. ii) Mobility rate of the ions to reach the electrode. The electrolysis of water in standard conditions requires a theoretical minimum of 237 kJ of electrical energy input to dissociate each mole of water, which is the standard Gibbs free energy of formation of water. Because of the low concentration of ions and the interfaces to be crossed electrons an extra voltage (Overvoltage) at each electrode is needed to about 0.6V. Combining the two half reactions so that electrons are conserved, we obtain the following equations.  Tri‐molybdenum phosphide (Mo3P) has been recently found as a promising nonprecious metal and earth‐abundant candidate with outstanding catalytic properties that can be used for electrocatalytic processes. In the electrolysis of water, electrodes are inert solids like platinum/palladium whereas electrolyte is a solute in a solution and the product is a gas. Electrolysis of water :- 2H2O + electrical energy --> O2 + 2H2 Electrolysis of water :- 2H2O + electrical energy --> O2 + 2H2 In this way thermal energy can be used for part of the electrolysis energy requirement. The electrolysis of water is mainly carried out to yield pure hydrogen and oxygen gases. (6). Since the electrolysis of pure water is thermodynamically non-feasible, methods to make it kinetically feasible are being investigated. This results in some of the fuel's energy being used to "assist" the electrolysis process and can reduce the overall cost of hydrogen produced.. The decomposition of pure water into hydrogen and oxygen at standard temperature and pressure is not favorable in thermodynamic terms. [citation needed]. However, the electrolysis of water is not simple and easy for many reasons. Water is very weakly dissociated into hydrogen and hydroxide ions. The concentration of the ions in neutral water are equal (= moles per litre). ii) Coating the electrode surface with catalytically active substances, like enzymes. Half reactions in an acid medium are; At anode: 2H2O → O2(g) + 4H+ + 4e– E° = +1.23 V, Net reaction is written as 2H2O → O2(g) + 2H2 E° = -1.23 V. The electrolysis takes place at a much lower potential than pure water (2.4V). It involves passing an electric current through the water which results in the decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen. Half reactions of electrolysis in the presence of a base are-, At cathode: 2H2O(l) + 2e– → H2(g) + 2OH– E° = -0.83 V, At anode: 4OH– → O2 + 2H2O + 4e– E° = +0.4 V, Net reaction is 2H2O → O2(g) + 2H2 E° = -1.23 V. Like electrolysis in acid medium, electrolysis in the basic medium also needs much lower potential. It also requires energy to overcome the change in entropy of the reaction. Additional hydrogen ions from acid will be reduced at the cathode while water will be oxidized at the anode. standard temperature for the values given above). Half reactions in the electrolysis of pure water at pH=7, and at 25°Care- At cathode: 2H2O(l) + 2e– → H2(g) + 2OH–E° = -0.42 V At anode: 2H2O → O2(g) + 4H+ + 4e–E° = +0.82 V The net reaction of electrolysis of water is given as; 2H2O(l) → 2H2(g) + O2(g) E° = -1.24 V The cell potential of electrolysis of pure water is negative and hence is thermodynamically unfavourable. This puts the \$4/gasoline gallon equivalent (gge) H2 dispensed objective well within reach, and close to a slightly elevated natural gas production cost for SMR. So, electrolysis of water to hydrogen and oxygen will be very small. The efficiency of electrolysis or the electron transfer depends on many factors such as; i) The number of available cations and anions in the solution. Dilute aqueous sodium (or potassium) hydroxide used in the electrolysis provides and movement of hydroxide ions to the anode to form oxygen. If other, less effective, materials are used for the cathode (e.g. Non-soluble, solid polymeric ionic compounds (Nafion), has been found to help electrolysis of water in less than 1.5V. 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