Soft as it is, this alloy offers good combination of strength and ductility for structural application after deformation with severe reductions. 29–43). However, fatigue crack initiated in the lower Mg sheet at the lowest load of 750 N, and through-thickness crack propagated in the lower sheet until final fracture. Types of sheets available include AZ31B, AZ31B-O, AZ31B-H24 & AZ31B-H26 magnesium plates. (a), respectively (Pmax = 1000 N, Nf = 4.4 × 105). A.A. Luo, A.K. Fig.6. Unfortunately, the laser beam does not distribute its energy evenly, making the joint at the edge of the beam, with incomplete adhesive decomposition, the most complex zone in the LWB joint. Global capacity in 2001 is estimated to have been about 530 000 tonnes with Chinese production representing about 40% of this total. Figure 8.26(a) shows the fracture of the sample with favourable fusion, which fails at the edge of the welding joint. As described above (Section 13.5.1), with production by the Pidgeon process and current Chinese fuel prices, LCA analyses show only marginal benefits from magnesium substitution even when the most favourable fuel prices are assumed. 8.11), Mg2Al3 and Mg17Al12 are obtained in the LWB weld, as is observed in laser welds between these two alloys. While production applications are limited, numerous prototype components have been made using sheet magnesium. Thus it could be concluded that the fatigue crack propagation through the thin IMC layer was dominant in the interface fatigue fracture mechanism. 7.29. The fatigue strengths of Al/Mg dissimilar welds are comparable to those of Al/Al welds made by the conventional tool and Mg/Mg by the scroll grooved tool (Fig.10(a)). These systems are unique in the sense that all chemicals and metals are assembled and activated by heat. Fig.5. In the dark areas of Mg-side fracture surface, Mg was detected by EDX analysis while Al was not. Deep drawing of magnesium can be performed but the forming operation must be carried out at elevated temperatures (approximately 225 °C) (Doege et al., 2001). The HK31 and HM21 alloys are suitable for use at temperatures up to 315 °C and 345 °C, respectively. Common cast alloys of magnesium consist of different amounts – but not exceeding 10% – of aluminium, manganese and zinc as principal alloying elements. Vickers hardness profiles were measured on the cross section along the lines parallel to the interface, where the lines are 0.1 mm away from the interface. Other alloying elements have been recently used, as well, m… It should be noted that the thickness is largely increased around 3 to 4 mm from the center of the nugget as shown in Fig.5(a), and the thickness reaches up to 140 μm at 4 mm from the center. Fig.8. It is also distinctly possible that the introduction of extraction techniques like the SilMag process will have lower production costs and be accompanied by less pollution than existing processes. J. Bohlen, ... D. Letzig, in Advances in Wrought Magnesium Alloys, 2012. Welding current, weld time, electrode force and weld spacing are the most important operating parameters. It is noteworthy that fatigue crack initiated in the lower sheet at the load of 1000 N, indicating that the transition of fatigue fracture mechanism occurred depending on the load level. Mechanical joining processes such as clinching or punch riveting are also suitable for magnesium sheet components, especially if the magnesium is to be joined to other materials such as steel or aluminium. However, sheet magnesium has not been used in high volume production in the mainstream automobile industry. Magnesium sheet has been used as a structural material in the transportation industry since World War II. While, eventually, the argument for the use of wrought (in addition to cast) magnesium alloys, including superplastically formed sheet, in volume vehicle manufacture seems overwhelming both technical and economic matters require further resolution and the time scale may well be protracted.
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