This test was used to analyze the difference in female rating between control and experimental males (treatment; within-dyads component), as well as the interactions with the differences in male traits. 2007; also see Gustafsson et al. [2006] for a contrasting result). The wings are brownish with chestnut tones and one broad white wing bar. In the other male (control male), we painted with the black marker a similar portion of the brown covert feathers closest to the wing bar, therefore showing coloration similar to that in experimental males (measured with a spectrophotometer Konica Minolta CM-2600d). White-crowned Sparrow. The camera was mounted on a tripod, consistently at the same distance from birds. 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In each trial, males and females were taken from different aviaries, and they had no contact prior to the experiment. Chewing lice are transmitted among hosts directly by contact (Marshall 1981), and resistance against these parasites may be heritable (Møller, Martinelli, et al. 2008). 2004; Gunderson et al. 1995), which has been shown also for the white wing bar of the house sparrow (Poston et al. The male Cape Verde Sparrow dark mid-crown; chestnut face; bold white underparts. 2010), and the contrast in color with the surrounding feathers, but not wing bar size, is related to the dominance ranking (Bókony et al. Flight feathers are brown and edged with darker brown, tail is dark brown and the rump is grayish. There were no significant differences between control and experimental males for the traits measured (morphological traits, feather holes, bib size, and original wing bar size), the only significant difference being manipulated wing bar (Table 1). The experiment started 15 min after the plastic barriers were removed and the sparrows became accustomed to the new situation. The male Italian Sparrow has chestnut upperparts; black patch on throat and breast; pale gray rest of underparts. In the whole sample of males, unmanipulated wing-bar size was negatively correlated with the number of feather holes (Pearson correlation, r = −0.33, P = 0.03, n = 61; Figure 2). By mating with more ornamented males, females may choose less parasitized partners, and benefit by reducing the probability of contagion of parasites with direct transmission. white crown, strong black and white head pattern, no eye ring, clear breast, wing bar, all U.S. Therefore, white patches, which are widespread in birds, might be used by females in order to evaluate male resistance against chewing lice. Males were matched for their wing-bar size, which was measured by means of photography on gridded paper with a digital camera (Nikon Coolpix 4300; following Figuerola and Senar 2000). Difference between preferred and nonpreferred males in tarsus length significantly correlated with the difference in female rating of preferred and nonpreferred males (Table 2; Figure 3). The size of the white wing bar might be maintained honestly due to the social environment, as shown for the white forehead in the collared flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis; Qvarnström 1997); but the size of the wing bar does not influence the result of agonistic encounters (Bókony et al. Attached Thumbnails Monday 15th January 2018, 22:59 #2: MTem. Males frequently signal their resistance against parasites by elaborate ornaments. Between February 29 and March 8, we performed a mate-choice experiment, when birds mate. 2007; also see Gustafsson et al. Female has has brown upperparts with black marks; pale supercilium; pale gray underparts. Adult Appearance: Goldfinches are smaller than a house sparrow, with a bright yellow wingbar visible both in flight and when perched. Image by: 1) Sandy Cole - National Aviary 2, 3) Dick Daniels - National Aviary We also checked whether males behaved with normality and showed interest in the female. Vol. Afterward, patch surface areas were measured with the program Image J (Rasband 2008). By choosing less parasitized males, females also choose healthy males, which may be more proficient delivering parental care to offspring, although they may also be the ones that show polygamy (Hamilton 1990; Hill 1991; Price et al. Nevertheless, females seem to have some capacity to use other (unknown) traits in addition to wing bar to determine male louse load, given that, when the male with the largest wing bar (due to experimental manipulation) was heavily parasitized, females preferred the less parasitized male, despite a smaller wing bar.

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