The council accepted Cyril's reasoning, affirmed the title Theotokos for Mary, and anathematized Nestorius' view as heresy. Why Do Christians Venerate Theotokos So Much? Cyril of Alexandria wrote, "I am amazed that there are some who are entirely in doubt as to whether the holy Virgin should be called Theotokos or not. [16] (cf. At issue is the interpretation of the Incarnation, and the nature of the hypostatic union of Christ's human and divine natures between Christ's conception and birth. The Iveron Theotokos (Iverskaya), an 11th-century Russian icon based on the 10th-century Hodegetria type, Iviron Monastery, Mount Athos. It is because Virgin Mary gave birth to God himself. An early icon of the Virgin as queen is in the church of Santa Maria in Trastevere in Rome, datable to 705-707 by the kneeling figure of Pope John VII, a notable promoter of the cult of the Virgin, to whom the infant Christ reaches his hand. Theotokos, (Greek: “God-Bearer”), in Eastern Orthodoxy, the designation of the Virgin Mary as mother of God. By contrast, certain other Marian beliefs which do not bear directly on the doctrine concerning the person of Jesus (for example, her sinlessness, the circumstances surrounding her conception and birth, her Presentation in the Temple, her continuing virginity following the birth of Jesus, and her death), which are taught and believed by the Orthodox Church (being expressed in the Church's liturgy and patristic writings), are not formally defined by the Church. The Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed of 381 affirmed the Christian faith on "one Lord Jesus Christ, the only-begotten Son of God, begotten of the Father before all worlds (æons)", that "came down from heaven, and was incarnate by the Holy Ghost and of the Virgin Mary, and was made man". This page was last edited on 22 November 2020, at 04:00. Why “Theotokos”? The Council of Chalcedon (451) used the term in formulating the definition of the hypostatic union (of Christ’s human and divine natures). The Bayeux Tapestry - Seven Ages of Britain - BBC One. The proper translation of Theotokos is "the one who brought forth God" and the difference is important. German has the translation Gottesgebärerin (lit. This type of depiction, with subtly changing differences of emphasis, has remained the mainstay of depictions of Mary to the present day. Theotokos is also used as the term for an Eastern icon, or type of icon, of the Mother with Child (typically called a Madonna in western tradition), as in "the Theotokos of Vladimir" both for the original 12th-century icon and for icons that are copies or imitate its composition. Theotokos, (Greek: “God-Bearer”), in Eastern Orthodoxy, the designation of the Virgin Mary as mother of God. The word in Greek is "Theotokos". Theotokos is often used in hymns to Mary in the Eastern Orthodox, Eastern Catholic and Oriental Orthodox churches. The term was certainly in use by the 4th century. "Pearson is mistaken in supposing that the resolution of the compound Theotocos into μήτηρ τοῦ Θεοῦ was unknown to the early Greek writers. The Bayeux Tapestry. Geri Parlby, “The Origins of Marian Art in the Catacombs and the Problems of Identification,” in Chris Maunder, ed., Origins of the Cult of the Virgin Mary (London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2008) 41-56. The reader will remember that the question I am discussing is not whether Mary can properly be called the Mother of God; this Nestorius denied and many in ancient and modern times have been found to agree with him. We should distinguish the term Theotokos from mother of God, because there is a subtle yet important difference. All of this is found in the hymnody and iconography of the feast. The short of it is that the titles we give to Mary reflect our Christology; the titles we use for her are important in safeguarding the doctrine of Jesus Christ, who is fully man and fully God. ]The putative Annunciation scene at Priscilla is also now recognized as yet another Roman matron with accompanying figure and not the Virgin Mary[citation needed]. In the Person of Jesus Christ there is now an indestructible meeting place—or joining together—of our fallen race and the Holy God Who created us. For if our Lord Jesus Christ is God, how is the holy Virgin who gave [Him] birth, not [Theotokos]?" Adoption at the Third Ecumenical CouncilAs a title for the Virgin Mary, Theotokos was recognized by the Orthodox Church at Third Ecumenical Council held at Ephesus in 431. If anyone does not confess that Emmanuel is, in truth, God, and therefore that the holy virgin is Theotokos (for she bore in a fleshly manner the Word from God become flesh), let him be anathema. Bogurodzica is a medieval Polish hymn, possibly composed by Adalbert of Prague (d. 997). [14][15] The tradition even tells us what Psalm the Apostle Peter sang as he headed the burial procession of the Theotokos. The usual Latin translations, Dei Genitrix or Deipara (approximately "parent (fem.) The Council of Ephesus (431), basing its arguments on the unity of the person of Christ, anathematized all who denied that Christ was truly divine, and asserted that Mary was truly the mother of God.

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