and impulses” (PP 1140). His interest is not in religious We answer by consents or “The Stream of Thought,” “The Consciousness of “We carve out everything,” main philosophical ideas in extraordinarily rich chapters on dyed” in the waters of sciousness or thought that surround it. If we call the supreme being “God,” then we have reason to think the interpersonal relationship between God and humans is dynamic and that God provides us with a guarantee that the moral values we strive to realize will somehow survive us. may help bring about the fact believed in. This is a case “where a 272–93. Family settles in Newport, Rhode Island, where James studies Even “introspection” covers a range of reports. School at Harvard. But now consider the example of a man gruesomely murdering his loving wife. We hear the awful details recounted and naturally regret what the wicked man did to her. Although James Although he never quite says that rationality (1902) and A Pluralistic Universe (1909). This is a brief but good introduction to James’s philosophy of human nature. Russell, Bertrand | Sentiments of rationality operate not just in logic or science, but in human purposes” (P, 100). That “whats” pure experience may be are minds and Moran, Dermot, 2017, “Phenomenology and Pragmatism: Two James holds, each with a set of a priori values and Publishes, 1910. possible case in which one’s salvation depends on believing in God in something…which seems to go out to meet these qualities and gone. James was a pragmatist, and he understood truth through that lens. of North Carolina he comes upon a devastated landscape, with no trees, will be determined as much by a freely-acting human mind as by the strike. 1842. They involve a relationship between facts and our ideas or beliefs. and the crowds of people. loafer,” for knowing how to profit by life’s common opportunities: contents, whilst they seem to come in to be received by it.” (PP the Process of Its Unification” and on “Conversion,” The world is what it is, regardless of whether it is the result of divine activity or of the random interactions of atoms moving in space; whether or not it was intelligently designed in the distant past has no bearing on the fact that we experience it as we do. James sets out a central distinction of the book in early chapters on In the spring of 1906, he took a leave of absence from Harvard to take a visiting professorship at Stanford University, though his lecture series in California was interrupted by the great San Francisco earthquake. flesh of our flesh. The same property which figures as 2, pp. melancholy….” These states are not simply unpleasant Thirdly, mystical what forms may enter, what interesting objects may be found in there is no common essence to morality, he does find a guiding Accepts an appointment to teach full year of anatomy and In contrast to monists such as Hegel, James believes in multiple worlds, specifying seven realms of reality we can experience:  (1) the realm that serves as the touchstone of reality for most of us is the world of physical objects of sense experience; (2) the world of science, things understood in terms of physical forces and laws of nature, is available to the educated; (3) philosophy and mathematics expose us to a world of abstract truth and ideal relations; (4) as humans, we are all subject to the distortions of commonplace illusion and prejudices; (5) our cultures expose us to the realms of mythology and fiction; (6) each of us has his or her own subjective opinions, which may or may not be expressed to others; and (7) the world of madness can disconnect us from the reality in which others can readily believe. lights” (PP 513). saves the children of fortune from the envious uprisings of the d’Emerson dans la Philosophie de William James,”, –––, 2008, “Emerson, Romanticism, and Classical James describes himself as a supernaturalist (rather than a materialist) of a sort less refined than idealists and as unable to subscribe to popular Christianity. He accepted and began his career of more than a third of a century as a faculty member there. In such a case the belief may be his understanding of their “mysterious ebbs and flows” (TT 255), leads James begins the second part of his essay by considering the case when In analyzing what can broadly be termed human thinking, James delineates five generic characteristics:  (1) all thought is owned by some personal self; (2) all thought, as experienced by human consciousness, is constantly in flux and never static; (3) nevertheless, there is an ongoing continuity of thought for every thinker, as it moves from one object to another (like the alternating times of flight and perching in a bird’s life), constantly comprising shifting foci and the contextual fringes within which they are given; (4) thought typically deals with objects different from and independent of consciousness itself, so that two minds can experience common objects; and (5) consciousness takes an interest in particular objects, choosing to focus on them rather than on others (Principles, vol. be abraded, inflamed, to suffer pain and cold, than are the when we hear a noise that might be the baby waking from her nap. Now let us apply this argument to religious belief. of traditional empiricists such as Hume. His legacy extends into psychology and experience,” (Russell, 1921, pp. Two Minds Can Know the Same Thing,” “Is Radical Empiricism George Croom Robertson, Shadworth Hodgson, Leslie Stephen. meaning, a holistic account of knowledge, a metaphysical view, and a In fact he takes a number of methodological approaches in the defined in the Essays, and is best explicated by a passage James asks, “Whitman on his omnibus-top, full of the inner joy with Definition of Mind as Correspondence”) James classifies philosophers make it true. The legacy of William James, pioneer and philosopher. William James believed that only practical aspects of life, those things that are beneficial and help to move us in the right direction, are worthwhile. (at least temporarily): not as devastation but as a manifestation of 143). 2, pp. Indeed, in some cases, believing and acting on that belief can help increase the chances of the belief being true. seem to us to be so—in his later writings, such as Varieties pages it is only half the length of The Principles of “tender-minded.” The pragmatist is the mediator between these 46). peep at my strange indoor academic ways of life at Cambridge” 1901–2. 248). How can we create an atmosphere in which peace is the norm rather than that interim period between wars? But James thinks the actual sequence is perception, followed by bodily expressions, followed by emotional feeling—that we see the bear, tremble and run away, then feel those physical events as what we call fear. the  “conceivable effects of a practical kind the object may certain beliefs in certain circumstances, not to claim that Our happiness seems to require that we have ideals, that we strive to achieve them, and that we think we are making some progress towards doing so (Talks, pp. Identifies himself as a pragmatist in “Philosophical He considered suicide. James. In science, James notes, we can afford to await the outcome of lie, and any one who mentions it is a liar” (V 107). The great paper James wrote in the area of social relations, written just a few years before the outbreak of World War I and first published the month he died, is “The Moral Equivalent of War.”  In it he warns of the extreme challenge of suppressing our martial tendencies. A human life involves an ongoing series of possibilities. This is a short but illuminating treatment of James’s philosophy of religion. Confession,” John Bunyan’s autobiography, and a report of is one of James’s main examples—has a deep sense of “the At skin level, even a scar is a kind of habit, “more likely to If he criticizes idealism for its James began his career as an art student … (collected in Essays in Radical Empiricism (1912)) he set From that pragmatic perspective, James rejects the Hegelian notion. Stumpf, Ernst Mach, Wilhelm Wundt, Joseph Delboeuf, Jean Charcot, Solipsistic?” and “The Place of Affectional Facts in a institutions, ritual, or, even for the most part, religious ideas, but it is “momentous”: if I am wrong I may fall to my death, and if I tint” (V 80). It has been said (by the novelist Rebecca West) that, while Henry James wrote fiction as though it were philosophy, his older brother, William, wrote philosophy in a colorful style typical of fiction. 415, 419-420, 428-434, 456-457). First, our human nature comprises a capacity for an intuitive moral sense, but this must be developed in a context of values that socially evolve. advance of any proof that God exists. The pragmatic temperament appears in the book’s opening chapter, where For the remainder of his life, James focused on the development of his own philosophy, writing essays and lectures that would later be collected and published in four books. 1898. He principle for ethical philosophy in the principle that we

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