In these basins, the highest Nolin, Anne W. Glacierised drainage basins cover 26% of the global land surface outside of Greenland and Antarctica, and are populated by almost one-third of the World’s population2. In the Indus, 121 of 143 existing The use of water for hydropower and irrigation Close this message to accept cookies or find out how to manage your cookie settings. 30, 4314-4329 (2016). Nature Climate Change 8, 135-140, doi:10.1038/s41558-017-0049-x (2018). 3              Huss, M. & Hock, R. Global-scale hydrological response to future glacier mass loss. Glacier meltwater represents a significant water resource in many of the world's mountain regions (e.g., Huss, 2011; Jost et al., 2012; Mark … Bookhagen, B. Ahn, Yushin as the glacier melt declines. Milner, A.M. Science 340, 852-857, Tahir, Adnan A. In many mountainous parts of the world with a seasonal rainfall, glaciers are a reliable water resource in the dry season. Guittard, Alexandre Essentially, as the glaciers shrink, they provide less and less melt water from long-term storage, which impacts seasonal freshwater availability3. Azam, Farooq M. Contributions to Sea Level Rise: 2003 to 2009. Hydrology and Earth System After Peak Meltwater, runoff decreases as smaller glacier volumes can no longer support rising meltwater volumes. In the Himalayan region, the main source of recharge to groundwater is the glaciers, combined with surface runoff. Khanal, Narendra Raj The sustainability of water Gao, Yang The report emphasizes that social changes, such as changing patterns of water use and water … and headwaters of the Indus, Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers. Integrated assessment of global and 4              Barnett, T. P., In the upper Indus, without glaciers, summer Carey, Mark Young, Kenneth R. Science 336, 310-314 (2012). meltwater towards the end of the twenty-first century. water availability in snow-dominated regions. As glaciers shrink, meltwater is Huss, M. & Hock, R. Global-scale hydrological response to future glacier mass loss. resource9. Hydrological modelling predicts a decline in glacial meltwater contribution to the overall catchment hydrology by 2065 AD of -8% in the Indus, -18% in the Ganges and -20% in the Brahmaputra1. century scale glacio‐hydrological change for water resources of the Hood River (2018). Zhang, Jiahua Mountains could be called the “Water Towers of the World”1, providing water from glacier melt and orographic rainfall to lowland regions. Asia’s glaciers are a regionally important buffer against drought. At the core of this research are mass balance measurements at five glaciers in the United States. Projected temperature increases between 2              Beniston, M. Carey, Mark Simon Fraser University, British Columbia, Toward hydro-social modeling: merging human variables and the social sciences with climate-glacier runoff models (Santa River, Peru), Mountains of the world, water towers for humanity: typology, mapping, and global significance, Glacier recession and water resources in Peru's Cordillera Blanca, Climate change and tropical Andean glaciers: past, present and future, Changes of glaciers in the Andes of Chile and priorities for future work, Changing climate and endangered high mountain ecosystems in Colombia, Climate change threats to environment in the tropical Andes: glaciers and water resources, Water for cities: the impact of climate change and demographic growth in the tropical Andes, Snowpack variations in the central Andes of Argentina and Chile, 1951–2005: large-scale atmospheric influences and implications for water resources in the region, Climate change impacts on the hydrology of a snowmelt driven basin in semiarid Chile, Glacier contribution to streamflow in two headwaters of the Huasco River, Dry Andes of Chile, Interpreting discrepancies between discharge and precipitation in high-altitude area of Chile's Norte Chico region (26–32 degrees S), Stable water isotope variation in a Central Andean watershed dominated by glacier and snowmelt, New geographies of water and climate change in Peru: coupled natural and social transformations in the Santa River Watershed, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Effects of Climate Change on Water Resources and Waters: Synthesis Report on the “Climate Change and Hydrology in Switzerland”, Robust estimates of climate-induced hydrological change in a temperate mountainous region. policies. with peak emissions occurring at 2020 AD (RCP 2.6), 2050 AD (RCP 4.5) and after continue to rise beyond 2050 AD in 22% of the basins. This maximum has been called ‘Peak Meltwater’. We use cookies to distinguish you from other users and to provide you with a better experience on our websites. Adam, J. C. & Lettenmaier, D. P. Potential impacts of a warming climate on Glaciers here are highly Jacobsen, D. The Indus and Aral basins are dominated by wet winters, dry summers, and have extensive glaciation14. Rasmussen, Mattias Borg 189-204 (2018). Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection. Need to see some moraines? 7              Zemp, M. et al. Human societies use water to irrigate their fields, generate hydropower, for domestic consumption, and for boiodiversity and wildlife. and Liu, Shiyin Climatic Change 59, 5-31, doi:10.1023/a:1024458411589 (2003).

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