Status and conservation of the only population of the Vulnerable owl-faced monkey Cercopithecus hamlyni in Rwanda. [6] Other sources say they have a tapetum lucidum composed of collagen fibrils. In fact, pair bonding in monogamous animals, such as owl monkeys, may be "sort of evolutionary antecedent to love in humans," said Larry Young, a behavioral neuroscientist at Emory University … When foraging at night, members of the family Aotidae will smell fruits and leaves before ingesting to determine the quality and safety of the food source. This primate’s birthing season is between May and October. Night monkeys form bonded pairs and the energy expenditure of protecting a mate is reduced. [39] The usage of radio-collaring while potentially extremely valuable, has been shown to interfere with social group interactions, the development of better collaring techniques and technology will therefore be imperative in the realisation and successful use of radio collars on night monkeys. Aotus: the owl monkey. San Martín Formosa, Argentina. Also, they use different voices to orientate themselves or when mating. [31] Males will therefore also have to distribute themselves to be within proximity to females, this form of food distribution lends itself to social monogamy as finding females may become difficult if males have to constantly search for females which may be widely distributed depending on food availability that year. [5] Fossil species have (correctly or incorrectly) been assigned to this genus, but only extant species are listed below. What Are the Indicators of Human Impact on the Environment? [19] Night monkeys also send chemical signals through urine to communicate reproductive receptivity. [featured-post url=””, Easton, J., Chao, N., Mulindahabi, F., Ntare, N., Rugyerinyange, L., & Ndikubwimana, I. 1998 ; Wolovich et al. This is the case with the owl-faced monkey that — just as its name implies — has a face that makes them look like a feathered nocturnal creature. [18] To begin, resting during the day allows for decreased interaction with diurnal predators. The species that live at higher elevations tend to have thicker fur than the monkeys at sea level. These species have been observed exploiting four different types of tree nests, monkeys will rest in; holes formed in the trunks of trees, in concave sections of branches surrounded by creepers and epiphytes, in dense areas of epiphyte, climber and vine growth and in areas of dense foliage. Birthing season extends from September to March and is species dependant, with one offspring being produced per year; however, in studies conducted in captivity, twins were observed. [34], According to the IUCN (the International Union for the Conservation of Nature), the Peruvian night monkey is classified an Endangered species, four species are Vulnerable, four are Least-concern species, and two are data deficient. [11] However, some night monkey species have become capable of adapting exceptionally well to anthropogenic influences in their environment. In captivity, a few studies have examined parental behavior and infant development in different owl monkey species (Dixson and Fleming 1981; Jantschke et al. [25] This provides further evidence to support the hypothesis that nocturnality is a derived trait in the family Aotidae. [9], In night monkeys, mating occurs infrequently, however females are fertile year-round, with reproductive cycles range from 13–25 days. [19] In general, the technique used by night monkeys in insect capturing is to use the palm of the hand to flatten a prey insect against a tree branch and then proceed to consume the carcass. Males weigh between 7 and 10 kilograms and females weigh between 4.5 and 6 kilos. The American Bullfrog: Why Is It Not Suitable as a Pet? The name "night monkey" comes from the fact that all species are active at night and are, in fact, the only truly nocturnal monkeys (an exception is the subspecies of Azara's night monkey, Aotus azarae azarae, which is cathemeral). The genus comprises eleven species which are found across Panama and much of South America in primary and secondary forests, tropical rainforests and cloud forests up to 2,400 metres (7,900 ft). [26] Although night monkey, like all primates are endothermic, meaning they are able to produce their own heat, night monkeys undergo behavioural thermoregulation in order to minimize energy expenditure. [26] These primates carefully choose areas with sufficient foliage and vines to provide cover from the sun and camouflage from predators, but which simultaneously allow for visibility of ground predators and permit effective routes of escape should a predator approach too quickly. In the last forty years, nearly 6,000 live night monkeys and more than 7,000 specimens have been traded from the nine countries which they call home. Generally, the female won’t become pregnant again for another two years. The male is slightly taller than the female, measuring 346 and 341 millimetres (13.6 and 13.4 in), respectively. However, although their dark fur helps them go unnoticed, deforestation, hunting and low birth rates have made it a vulnerable species. Only one infant is born each year. [27] Therefore, the lunar cycle has a significant influence on the foraging and a nocturnal behaviors of night monkey species. Casa 100, Barrio Gral. However, they prefer to be on the ground when moving around and finding food. [29]  Mate guarding likely evolved as a means of reducing energy expenditure when mating. [19] The process of scent marking is accomplished through the rubbing of the hairs covering scent glands onto the desired “marked item”. They have gray and black, long, dense and thin hair. Radio-collaring of free ranging primates proposes a method of obtaining more accurate and complete data surrounding primate behavior patterns. [20] The gestation period for night monkey is approximately 117– 159 days but varies from species to species. [19] Therefore, olfactory communication in night monkeys is a result of sexual selection; sexually dimorphic trait conferring increased reproductive success. [8], Night monkeys can be found in Panama, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina, Bolivia, and Venezuela.

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