King Athelstan (c. 894-939) Athelstan (or Aethelstan) was the son of Edward the Elder and grandson of Alfred the Great. Folcuin stated that Æthelstan sent alms to the abbey for his dead brother and received monks from the abbey graciously when they came to England, although Folcuin did not realise that Æthelstan died before the monks made the journey in 944. William did not know her name, but traditions first recorded at. The reigns of Æthelstan's half-brothers Edmund (939–946) and Eadred (946–955) were largely devoted to regaining control. [139] An important source is the twelfth-century chronicle of William of Malmesbury, but historians are cautious about accepting his testimony, much of which cannot be verified from other sources. [56], Æthelstan set out on his campaign in May 934, accompanied by four Welsh kings: Hywel Dda of Deheubarth, Idwal Foel of Gwynedd, Morgan ap Owain of Gwent, and Tewdwr ap Griffri of Brycheiniog. He was succeeded by his son Athelstan. Blinding would have been a sufficient disability to render Æthelstan ineligible for kingship without incurring the odium attached to murder. The official website for BBC History Magazine, BBC History Revealed and BBC World Histories Magazine, Save over 50% on a BBC History Magazine or BBC History Revealed gift subscription, In season 4 of The Last Kingdom, King Alfred is dead, and his son King Edward plays a leading role in attempting to keep Wessex and Mercia together, while fending off the threat from the Vikings. [28] When Edward died, Æthelstan was apparently with him in Mercia, while Ælfweard was in Wessex. 116–117, Foot, "Where English Becomes British", p. 144, John, "The Age of Edgar", p. 172; Stafford, "Ealdorman", Pratt, "Written Law and the Communication of Authority", p. 332. If Edward had intended his realms to be divided after his death, his deposition of Ælfwynn in Mercia in 918 may have been intended to prepare the way for Æthelstan's succession as king of Mercia. Modern historians regard him as the first King of England and one of the greatest Anglo-Saxon kings. King Richard III 1483 - 1485 . [11], Edward died at Farndon in northern Mercia on 17 July 924, and the ensuing events are unclear. 335–336, 345–346; Foot. In 941 Olaf died, and Edmund took back control of the east midlands, and then York in 944. His son Aethelstan continued to expand his father’s power base and styled himself the king of England after extending control over Northumbria. The triumvirate of father, son, and grandson in the form of Alfred, Edward and Aethelstan laid the foundations of England as single polity. According to later Scandinavian sources, he helped another possible foster-son, Hakon, son of Harald Fairhair, king of Norway, to reclaim his throne,[130] and he was known among Norwegians as "Æthelstan the Good". Alex Woolf describes it as a "pyrrhic victory" for Æthelstan: the campaign seems to have ended in a stalemate, his power appears to have declined, and after he died Olaf acceded to the kingdom of Northumbria without resistance. Patrick Wormald's verdict was harsh: "The hallmark of Æthelstan's law-making is the gulf dividing its exalted aspirations from his spasmodic impact." [78] Legal codes required the approval of the king, but they were treated as guidelines which could be adapted and added to at the local level, rather than a fixed canon of regulations, and customary oral law was also important in the Anglo-Saxon period. In the 890s, renewed Viking attacks were successfully fought off by Alfred, assisted by his son (and Æthelstan's father) Edward and Æthelred, Lord of the Mercians. This is seen by Keynes as "the invention of a wholly new and distinctive polity", covering both West Saxons and Mercians, which was inherited by Edward with the support of Mercians at the West Saxon court, of whom the most important … Well-trained by Alfred, his son Edward 'the Elder' (reigned 899-924) was a bold soldier who defeated the Danes in Northumbria at Tettenhall in 910 and was acknowledged by the Viking kingdom of York. [128], Æthelstan's most important European alliance was with the new Liudolfing dynasty in East Francia. [23], Edward married his second wife, Ælfflæd, at about the time of his father's death, probably because Ecgwynn had died, although she may have been put aside. [9], According to William of Malmesbury, Æthelstan was thirty years old when he came to the throne in 924, which would mean that he was born around 894. He was succeeded by his half-brother, Edmund. Athelstan (895-939) - first son to succeed his father as King of England (ruled 924-939). Sarah Foot commented that tithing and oath-taking to deal with the problem of theft had its origin in Frankia: Historians differ widely regarding Æthelstan's legislation. [101] This has a portrait of Æthelstan presenting the book to Cuthbert, the earliest surviving manuscript portrait of an English king. He was deposed two months and 17 days after his accession in favour of his uncle (Richard III), and is traditionally believed to have been murdered (with his brother) in the Tower of London on Richard's orders. Foreign contemporaries described him in panegyrical terms. [8], When Edward died in 924, he controlled all of England south of the Humber. In the middle of the century, England came under increasing attack from Viking raids, culminating in invasion by the Great Heathen Army in 865. [13] However, Barbara Yorke and Sarah Foot argue that allegations that Æthelstan was illegitimate were a product of the dispute over the succession, and that there is no reason to doubt that she was Edward's legitimate wife. Examples were minted in Wessex, York, and English Mercia (in Mercia bearing the title "Rex Saxorum"), but not in East Anglia or the Danelaw. "[88] In the view of Simon Keynes, however, "Without any doubt the most impressive aspect of King Æthelstan's government is the vitality of his law-making", which shows him driving his officials to do their duties and insisting on respect for the law, but also demonstrates the difficulty he had in controlling a troublesome people. [77] It remained in force throughout the tenth century, and Æthelstan's codes were built on this foundation. This strategy did not last long, and at Thunderfield Æthelstan returned to the hard line, softened by raising the minimum age for the death penalty to fifteen "because he thought it too cruel to kill so many young people and for such small crimes as he understood to be the case everywhere". "[154] George Molyneaux argues that: Simon Keynes saw Æthelstan's law-making as his greatest achievement. 180–185, Keynes, "England, c. 900–1016", pp. 359–361, Halloran, "Anlaf Guthfrithson at York", pp. After that he witnessed fairly regularly until his resignation in 931, but was listed in a lower position than entitled by his seniority. Æthelstan or Athelstan (/ˈæθəlstæn/; Old English: Æðelstan [ˈæ.ðel.stɑn], Old Norse: Aðalsteinn, meaning "noble stone"; c. 894 – 27 October 939) was King of the Anglo-Saxons from 924 to 927 and King of the English from 927 to 939 when he died. Israel and "a certain Frank" drew a board game called "Gospel Dice" for an Irish bishop, Dub Innse, who took it home to Bangor. The alliance produced peace between Wales and England, and within Wales, lasting throughout Æthelstan's reign, though some Welsh resented the status of their rulers as under-kings, as well as the high level of tribute imposed upon them. 339–347; Foot, Keynes, "Royal government and the written word in late Anglo-Saxon England", p. 237; Keynes, "England, c. 900–1016", p. 471, Pratt, "Written Law and the Communication of Authority", p. 349, Wood, "A Carolingian Scholar in the Court of King Æthelstan", pp. Edgiva († aft. You will shortly receive a receipt for your purchase via email. Crowned king of the whole country at Kingston on Sept. 4, 925, he proceeded to … 26, 33; Foot, Ryan, "Conquest, Reform and the Making of England", p. 296, Williams, "Ælfflæd"; Miller, "Edward the Elder". [34] He was crowned by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Athelm, who probably designed or organised a new ordo (religious order of service) in which the king wore a crown for the first time instead of a helmet.

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