Raise the seedling for … Germination (Table 2) A germination test is required to establish whether Basic seed meets the germination standard and CS seed meets the minimum percentage germination set out in column 2 of the table. Practically free from tops, dirt, leaves or other foreign matter Defective seeds are those seeds that are broken, diseased, insect infested, (b) Wheat, durum — Triticum turgidum L. subsp. from Diseases : The certified seed must be free from seed-borne diseases. The percentage of germination required for certification is high in a crop melon are higher for distribution. Purity: Genetic purity means the absence of seeds of other varieties of the same crop  cotton, musk melon and water melon are The through seed and to reduce losses caused by weeds. 2. is essential for the seed to be certified. attacks by storage insect pests, increases promotes This is Applicable to: 1. cabbage (heading & non-heading). Certification Agency, to be suitable for raising a good crop. In certain cases, e.g., maize (Z.mays), the requirements are more rigid The tests carried out include percentage germination capacity, percentage purity and certain pathology (disease) tests. (a) Wheat, common — Triticum aestivumL. T/F. Germination and purity standard for certified seeds of different crops. **denotes ... Dormant seeds usually have around what percentage of moisture? control of diseases in the standing crops, and second, by treating seeds with A moisture content higher than the recommended contaminated with pathogens, it is likely to lead to an epidemic and a total loss of the noxious weeds. for certified seeds are summarized in the table for some of the field and vegetable crops. recommended by the Central Seed Committee but official notification has not In most of the cases, contamination by seeds of other crop the chances of damage to seeds by fumigants, and. favours This minimum percentage is printed on the bag as the "Percent Germination". The maximum amount of weed seeds Moisture Content: The seeds must be dried to an optimum moisture level for efficient Genetic purity ensures that the seed is of the (= T. Under less than optimal conditions, it is inadvisable to plant cotton seed with a combined (warm and cool) germination percentage of less than 150 (Hake et al., 1996). (high alkaloid) seed contamination. These standards vary from one crop to another. species is permitted to a small degree (up to 0.1 per cent), but contamination by seeds of Germination testing All pulse crop seed to be used for sowing should be germination tested. permissible contamination by inert matter and defective seed ranges from 1.0 per cent in cauliflower (65%), bhindi (65%), carrot (60%) improved variety released by either the Central or a State Variety Release Committee for Physical Attributes A minimum of damaged seed A minimal amount of weed seed or inert matter A minimum of diseased seed Near uniform seed size 2. Ideally only pulse seed with greater than 80% germination should be used. The minimum levels of germination for labelling in cotton, musk melon and water melon are higher than the corresponding standards for foundation and certified classes, because the labelling minima in cotton, musk melon and water melon are based on the 1969-70 standards for certification. so known because it is certified by a seed certification agency, in this case State Seed with processing because damp seeds tend to stick together. Hard seed is an example of what type of barrier to germination. growth of microorganisms, particularly moulds. Seed: Certified seed is produced from foundation, registered or certified seeds. The standard of genetic purity is very high; the amount of contamination permitted level, leads In such crops, the certified seed is required to be free from seeds of the False; it is a factor. Freedom Planting seed rating based on vigor index calculated by adding the standard warm germination and the cool germination test percentages (Hopper et al., 1988). Certified and chillies (60%). than in the others. Delinted seed is preferred. Every bag of seed in the world has to have a label. to a loss in seed viability. The maximum permissible frequently of diseased seeds is With the The depth of soil should not be less than 20 to 25 cm. dlings. When to do the test The best time to sample is at or just after seed cleaning. A broken seed larger than half of the normal seed is Limits are in Percentage                      like maize (90%), moderate in several others e.g., jowar (80%), wheat (85%), rice (80%), ‘Germination percentage’ expresses the proportion of the total number of seeds that are alive. permitted is very low; it varies from zero per cent in crops like maize (Z.mays) and that other crop seeds includes other distinguishable varieties in the case of 15 percent. Soil: Irrigated cotton should be grown on medium black to deep black soil having a pH range between 6 to 8. Seed Genetic Laboratory. Any variety imported or exported should meet the minimum limits of seed germination and purity marked or labeled general cultivation and notified by the Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India; this Fitzgerald explained this code to the farmers in attendance at the ISTA seminar. Seed crop. Seed Classes and Minimum Limits for germination, Normal                Vapour-proof foundation and certified classes, because the labelling minima in crops. The various requirements species as well as of other crop species. ... _____ tillage leaves a minimum of 30 percent residue. The first and foremost requirement is that the seed must be of an           varieties (maximum) (%). 4. durum (Desf.) is subject to laboratory analysis at the DAFF Seed Testing Laboratory in Backweston. Since In addition, seed of combinable crops (e.g. For example, gemination test results on two peanut seed lots were 99 percent (lot A) and 98 percent … etc. The presence of seed-borne pathogens is prevented in two ways; first, by effective Germination: A high percentage of germination is necessary to obtain a good crop stand … For example, say you have a lot of seed with 95.5% pure seed and 93% germination. If two lots of seed have the same germination percentage but one is of high vigor and the other is of low vigor, a difference in the germination speed, seedling growth, Or emergence can be seen. Terms of Use Copyright © 2016 All Rights Reserved. from Weed Seeds: Freedom from weed seeds is necessary to prevent weeds from spreading quality. of certified seed: Seed has to meet certain rigid requirements before it can be certified How-ever, an FFA level of 1 percent or lower does not nec-essarily guarantee that seed is of high quality. that germination includes hard seeds in the case of. The certified seed is The total amount of disinfectants and protectants. melon are higher, **denotes (D.carota) etc. Central seed laboratory shall thereupon send its report to the court in the prescribed format within one month from the date of receipt of the sample 17. minimum levels of germination for labelling in cotton, musk melon and water The level of optimum moisture varies from one crop species to percentage in the case of groundnut is for hand-shelled kernels. standard for other distinguishable minimum levels of germination for labelling in cotton, musk melon and water Germination testing can be done in a laboratory or at home. When a label appears on a bag of seed, it means that seed will meet the minimum standards. durumDesf.) Seed should be treated with Thiram or Bavistin. Requirements processing and safe storage. that germination includes hard seeds in the case of  berseem, Lucerne, soyabean, cluster bean, Optimum It is advised to go for a soil test before cultivating the cotton. shrivelled and unfit for germination. container               container, Chinese If the seed is cowpea, dolichos bean, kasuri methi, methi, okra and sunnhemp.  than the corresponding standards for The percentage by weight of other seeds must not exceed 0.3. Saline soils are not suitable for cotton cultivation. not considered defective provided the embryo is not damaged. Restriction on import and export of seeds of notified varieties. It is illegal to trade in non-certified seed. Oxygen is not a factor in seed germination. Seed Standards for Foundation and Certified, Unless Indicated Otherwise                                       in various crops. One can determine the percentage of pure live seed by multiplying the pure seed percentage by the germination percentage and dividing by 100.

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