Save 50% off a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Munich the capital of the German state of Bavaria, which is in Southern Germany, was the home of the Nazi movement and the site of the model concentration camp at Dachau. On the German side the final version of “Case Green,” as approved by Hitler on May 30, showed 39 divisions for operations against Czechoslovakia. Hitler agreed, and on September 29 Hitler, Chamberlain, Daladier, and Italian dictator Benito Mussolini met in Munich. As a result of the agreement, German forces crossed the border on Oct. 1 and were warmly received by the Sudeten Germans while many Czechoslovakians fled the region. The Czechoslovak government initially rejected the proposal but was forced to accept it on September 21. This was largely due to unrest in the Sudetenland, which was fomented by the Sudeten German Party (SdP). Having risked his career and British prestige on the deal, Chamberlain was crushed as he returned home. Desiring to avoid war, Chamberlain and Daladier were willing to agree to this "Italian plan." This was accomplished as German Sudeten votes concentrated in the party while Czech and Slovak votes were spread across a constellation of political parties. Meeting with the Cabinet, Chamberlain was authorized to concede the Sudetenland and received support from the French for such a move. Both Daladier and Chamberlain returned home to jubilant welcoming crowds relieved that the threat of war had passed, and Chamberlain told the British public that he had achieved “peace with honour. Sudeten Germans marching in Karlsbad, Germany, April 1937. After American occupation in 1945, Munich was completely rebuilt following a meticulous and—by comparison to other war-ravaged German cities—rather conservative plan which preserved its pre-war street grid. Quickly coming to have contempt for Britain's and France's fear of war, Hitler encouraged Poland and Hungary to take parts of Czechoslovakia. Going further, Britain concluded an Anglo-Polish military alliance on Aug. 25. In addition, as Czechoslovakia was a polyglot country, concerns were present about other minorities seeking independence. I believe it is peace for our time.” His words were immediately challenged by his greatest critic, Winston Churchill, who declared, “You were given the choice between war and dishonour. Long worried about German intentions, the Czechoslovakians commenced construction of a large series of fortifications in the region beginning in 1935. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... (From left) Italian leader Benito Mussolini, German Chancellor Adolf Hitler, a German interpreter, and British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain meeting in Munich, Germany, September 29, 1938. On the 24th the French ordered a partial mobilization; the Czechoslovaks had ordered a general mobilization one day earlier. In the spring of 1938, Hitler began openly to support the demands of German-speakers living in the Sudeten region of Czechoslovakia for closer ties with Germany. Having secured this concession, Chamberlain returned to Germany on Sept. 22 and met with Hitler at Bad Godesberg. In the aftermath of the Great War, Munich, by being a heart of Bavaria, was overtaken by disorders and riots and the left-wing parties declared the ‘Bavarian Republic’.On the prime of the year 1919, a temperate democratic government was overthrown by communist, who proclaimed the so … Presidents from Franklin D. Roosevelt to George H. W. Bush, from the 1940s to the 1980s, have used the example of Munich as a warning to the public about the inherent dangers of appeasing aggressors. On April 28–29, 1938, Daladier met with British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain in London to discuss the situation. On September 22 Chamberlain again flew to Germany and met Hitler at Bad Godesberg, where he was dismayed to learn that Hitler had stiffened his demands: he now wanted the Sudetenland occupied by the German army and the Czechoslovaks evacuated from the area by September 28. The Czechoslovak government strongly opposed the loss of the Sudetenland, as the region contained a vast array of natural resources, as well as a significant amount of the nation's heavy industry and banks. In response, Mussolini proposed a four-power summit between Germany, Britain, France, and Italy to discuss the situation. The following year, after a conference with the French, the scope of the defenses increased and the design began to mirror that used in the Maginot Line along the Franco-German border. Munich Agreement, (September 30, 1938), settlement reached by Germany, Great Britain, France, and Italy that permitted German annexation of the Sudetenland, in western Czechoslovakia. As such, the French government followed the path set by British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain (1869–1940), who believed that the Sudeten Germans' grievances had merit. By May 1938 it was known that Hitler and his generals were drawing up a plan for the occupation of Czechoslovakia. In May, France and Britain recommended to Czechoslovakian President Edvard Beneš (1844–1948) that he give in to Germany's demands. While many in the British government were pleased with the result, others were not. Largely abandoned by its allies, the Czechoslovakians were forced to agree. Kennedy Hickman is a historian, museum director, and curator who specializes in military and naval history. It was Hitler's hope that Henlein's supporters would foment enough unrest that it would show that the Czechoslovakians were unable to control the region and provide an excuse for the German Army to cross the border. This article was most recently revised and updated by,, German History in Documents and Images - The Munich Agreement, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum - Munich Agreement, Munich Agreement - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Having occupied Austria beginning in March 1938, Adolf Hitler turned his attention to the ethnically German Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia. Resisting this advice, Beneš instead ordered a partial mobilization of the army. Before leaving Munich, Chamberlain and Hitler signed a paper declaring their mutual desire to resolve differences through consultation to assure peace. Not satisfied with only Austria, Hitler began demanding parts of Czechoslovakia, too. Though presented by the Italian leader, the plan had been produced by the German government, and its terms were similar to Hitler's latest ultimatum. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. The Munich Agreement was an astonishingly successful strategy for the Nazi party leader Adolf Hitler (1889–1945) in the months leading up to World War II. A modern subway has been built in the city. Hitler had recently annexed Austria into Germany, and the conquest of Czechoslovakia was the next step in his plan of creating a greater Germany. Nevertheless, Mussolini introduced a written plan that was accepted by all as the Munich Agreement. The Czechoslovak government hoped that Britain and France would come to its assistance in the event of German invasion, but British Prime Minister Chamberlain was intent on averting war. Though he agreed, Hitler continued military planning. The Munich Analogy. After stating that such demands were unacceptable, Chamberlain was told that the terms were to be met or military action would result. Black Friday Sale! Following this decision, Hitler began demanding that the Sudetenland immediately be turned over to Germany. Moreover, disruptive political activities inside Czechoslovakia had been underway since as early as October 1933, when Konrad Henlein founded the Sudetendeutsche Heimatfront (Sudeten-German Home Front).

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