highly generalized. This sequence of plant communities is an example of. In this section, we will limit our discussion to predation of and by vertebrates (animals with an internal spinal column or backbone). Maybe only two or three trees are in fruit at any given time, so fruit is scarce (Figure 6.9b). In extreme cases, individuals who are bitten may go into shock and die. When two species (or populations) occupy the same geographic area, they are sympatric. Some primatologists separate foraging, the act of finding and handling food, from feeding, the act of consuming food, while others combine these into one category. If this rate of loss is not curtailed, the Bornean orangutan will go extinct in less than 15 years. Some primates have small body size and can easily hide from predators. In general, higher-quality foods, like fruit and insects, are less abundant and have patchier distributions than lower-quality foods, like leaves. Frugivores who do not eat leaves must travel farther distances in search of food because they can only feed in some trees (i.e., those producing fruit). The chimpanzees of Taï National Park in Côte d’Ivoire take deliberate, cooperative hunting to the next level. Between 1973 and 2010, almost 100,000 km2 of orangutan habitat was cleared for palm oil plantations in Borneo (Figure 6.18a). If insects are such a high-quality food, why aren’t all primates insectivores? Unless otherwise noted, LibreTexts content is licensed by CC BY-NC-SA 3.0. As you learned in Chapter 5, insects are a high-quality food. However, the recent, intense pressure of expanding human populations on many primate habitats is resulting in rapid population declines for many species. Because of their large body size, gorillas have a much lower metabolic rate than tarsiers, so they can consume low-quality food, like leaves, and take their time digesting it, so long as they get enough (Figure 6.6b). Observations of one species displacing another at a food site is a sign of competition between the two species. Competition between primates takes two forms: Individuals engage in direct competition (e.g., fighting) over resources that are large and worth defending (fruit is a good example of a food resource over which primates will fight) or individuals engage in indirect competition (e.g., eating food before another individual gets to it), which occurs when a resource is small or not worth defending. That is because there are many people have chimpanzees as pets and companions at home. outrunning predators. Similarly, some insects, like termites in a termite mound (Figure 6.10), are found in clumps, similar to the way a single fruit tree is a “clump” of fruit surrounded by trees with no fruit. It also helps protect scarce food resources. searches for food c. finds mates d all of the answers are correct e encounters neighbouring groups The best way that most primates avoid predation is by Select one: a. avoiding detection by predators b. outrunrting predators c. being nocturnal d. joining another primate group e using venom The patas monkeys and vervets that I studied in Kenya, along with olive baboons and Senegal bush babies, are sympatric and form a primate community (Figure 6.11a–d). How will understanding of attitudes and predisposition enhance teaching? to exploit, and large primate communities result (Figure 6.13). Primates use a variety of anti-predator tactics to avoid and/or escape predation. Because you learned about the dental and digestive adaptations experienced by frugivores (who feed primarily on fruit), folivores (whose diet consists mostly of leaves), and insectivores (who eat mainly insects) in Chapter 5, we will not discuss them here. And I get why that doesn’t feel very good. However, an adult male gorilla, who may weigh up to 200 kilograms, cannot possibly consume enough insects to meet its caloric needs. For more information contact us at info@libretexts.org or check out our status page at https://status.libretexts.org. All Rights Reserved. Introduction. Heavier animals must consume absolutely more food, but they have a slower metabolism so they need fewer calories per unit of body weight. mates to alarm call when they see a predator--many primates have Early hominids and baboons were preyed upon on a large scale by leopards 1–2 million years ago in South Africa ( Brain, 1970 ). Although all primates will eat insects if they come upon them, those species that rely most heavily on insects tend to be the smallest. Primate behavioural ecology The most rewarding studies for conservation purposes are studies of the animals in their natural habitat. Mimicking the venomous cobra’s sound and gait could have helped the little primate avoid predators common to both species. It is not as easy for diurnal primates to avoid detection by predators, and most (but not all) diurnal primates, like Hanuman langurs, have larger body sizes and live in groups (Figure 6.17). Defense mechanisms are very important to all animal life. What is the conflict of the story of sinigang? The majority of primates live in tropical habitats, and the loss of tropical forest, whether due to logging or farming, is the single greatest factor contributing to the decline of primate populations across the planet. The exception is when the small-bodied species significantly outnumbers the larger-bodied one. There are over 600 species and subspecies of primates on the planet today, and almost half of them live under the threat of extinction. This keeps competitive interactions between groups of folivores to a minimum. In addition to interactions with other members of their own group and other groups of conspecifics (members of the same species), primates are members of broader ecological communities composed of other species, including other primates, predators, and even humans. Between-group competition is seen in terms of changes to home range size and nature of interactions between groups. 2013). It can either apply the venom to its head for protection or store it in the mouth to deliver through a bite. How can so many species of primate occupy the same area and avoid competition?

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